帮助命令

docker version    #显示docker的版本信息。
docker info       #显示docker的系统信息,包括镜像和容器的数量
docker 命令 --help #帮助命令

帮助文档的地址:https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/build/

镜像命令

docker images #查看所有本地主机上的镜像 可以使用docker image ls代替

docker search 搜索镜像

docker pull 下载镜像 docker image pull

docker rmi 删除镜像 docker image rm

docker images 查看所有本地的主机上的镜像

➜  ~ docker images
REPOSITORY            TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
mysql                 5.7                 e73346bdf465        24 hours ago        448MB

# 解释
#REPOSITORY			# 镜像的仓库源
#TAG				# 镜像的标签
#IMAGE ID			# 镜像的id
#CREATED			# 镜像的创建时间
#SIZE				# 镜像的大小
# 可选项
Options:
  -a, --all             Show all images (default hides intermediate images) #列出所有镜像
  -q, --quiet           Only show numeric IDs # 只显示镜像的id
  
➜  ~ docker images -aq #显示所有镜像的id
e73346bdf465
d03312117bb0
d03312117bb0
602e111c06b6
2869fc110bf7
470671670cac
bf756fb1ae65
5acf0e8da90b

docker search 搜索镜像

➜  ~ docker search mysql
NAME                              DESCRIPTION                                     STARS               OFFICIAL            AUTOMATED
mysql                             MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   9500                [OK]                
mariadb                           MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MyS…   3444                [OK]  
# --filter=STARS=3000 #搜索出来的镜像就是STARS大于3000的
Options:
  -f, --filter filter   Filter output based on conditions provided
      --format string   Pretty-print search using a Go template
      --limit int       Max number of search results (default 25)
      --no-trunc        Don't truncate output
      
➜  ~ docker search mysql --filter=STARS=3000
NAME                DESCRIPTION                                     STARS               OFFICIAL            AUTOMATED
mysql               MySQL is a widely used, open-source relation…   9500                [OK]             
mariadb             MariaDB is a community-developed fork of MyS…   3444                [OK]

docker pull 下载镜像

# 下载镜像 docker pull 镜像名[:tag]
➜  ~ docker pull tomcat:8
8: Pulling from library/tomcat #如果不写tag,默认就是latest
90fe46dd8199: Already exists   #分层下载: docker image 的核心 联合文件系统
35a4f1977689: Already exists 
bbc37f14aded: Already exists 
74e27dc593d4: Already exists 
93a01fbfad7f: Already exists 
1478df405869: Pull complete 
64f0dd11682b: Pull complete 
68ff4e050d11: Pull complete 
f576086003cf: Pull complete 
3b72593ce10e: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:0c6234e7ec9d10ab32c06423ab829b32e3183ba5bf2620ee66de866df640a027  # 签名 防伪
Status: Downloaded newer image for tomcat:8
docker.io/library/tomcat:8 #真实地址

#等价于
docker pull tomcat:8
docker pull docker.io/library/tomcat:8

docker rmi 删除镜像

➜  ~ docker rmi -f 镜像id #删除指定的镜像
➜  ~ docker rmi -f 镜像id 镜像id 镜像id 镜像id#删除指定的镜像
➜  ~ docker rmi -f $(docker images -aq) #删除全部的镜像

容器命令

docker run 镜像id 新建容器并启动

docker ps 列出所有运行的容器 docker container list

docker rm 容器id 删除指定容器

docker start 容器id #启动容器
docker restart 容器id #重启容器
docker stop 容器id #停止当前正在运行的容器
docker kill 容器id #强制停止当前容器

说明:我们有了镜像才可以创建容器,Linux,下载centos镜像来学习

➜  ~ docker container     
Usage:  docker container COMMAND
Manage containers
Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  inspect     Display detailed information on one or more containers
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  ls          List containers
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  prune       Remove all stopped containers
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  run         Run a command in a new container
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes
Run 'docker container COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

新建容器并启动

docker run [可选参数] image | docker container run [可选参数] image 
#参书说明
--name="Name"		容器名字 tomcat01 tomcat02 用来区分容器
-d					后台方式运行
-it 				使用交互方式运行,进入容器查看内容
-p					指定容器的端口 -p 8080(宿主机):8080(容器)
		-p ip:主机端口:容器端口
		-p 主机端口:容器端口(常用)
		-p 容器端口
		容器端口
-P(大写) 				随机指定端口
# 测试、启动并进入容器
➜  ~ docker run -it centos /bin/bash
Unable to find image 'centos:latest' locally
latest: Pulling from library/centos
8a29a15cefae: Already exists 
Digest: sha256:fe8d824220415eed5477b63addf40fb06c3b049404242b31982106ac204f6700
Status: Downloaded newer image for centos:latest
[root@95039813da8d /]# ls
bin  dev  etc  home  lib  lib64  lost+found  media  mnt  opt  proc  root  run  sbin  srv  sys  tmp  usr  var
[root@95039813da8d /]# exit #从容器退回主机
exit
➜  ~ ls
shell  user.txt

列出所有运行的容器

#docker ps命令 #列出当前正在运行的容器
  -a, --all             Show all containers (default shows just running)
  -n, --last int        Show n last created containers (includes all states) (default -1)
  -q, --quiet           Only display numeric IDs
  
  ➜  ~ docker ps   
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                 COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                    NAMES
68729e9654d4        portainer/portainer   "/portainer"             14 hours ago        Up About a minute   0.0.0.0:8088->9000/tcp   funny_curie
d506a017e951        nginx                 "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   15 hours ago        Up 15 hours         0.0.0.0:3344->80/tcp     nginx01
➜  ~ docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                 COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                       PORTS                    NAMES
95039813da8d        centos                "/bin/bash"              3 minutes ago       Exited (0) 2 minutes ago                              condescending_pike
1e46a426a5ba        tomcat                "catalina.sh run"        11 minutes ago      Exited (130) 9 minutes ago                            sweet_gould
14bc9334d1b2        bf756fb1ae65          "/hello"                 3 hours ago         Exited (0) 3 hours ago                                amazing_stonebraker
f10d60f473f5        bf756fb1ae65          "/hello"                 3 hours ago         Exited (0) 3 hours ago                                dreamy_germain
68729e9654d4        portainer/portainer   "/portainer"             14 hours ago        Up About a minute            0.0.0.0:8088->9000/tcp   funny_curie
677cde5e4f1d        elasticsearch         "/docker-entrypoint.…"   15 hours ago        Exited (143) 8 minutes ago                            elasticsearch
33eb3f70b4db        tomcat                "catalina.sh run"        15 hours ago        Exited (143) 8 minutes ago                            tomcat01
d506a017e951        nginx                 "nginx -g 'daemon of…"   15 hours ago        Up 15 hours                  0.0.0.0:3344->80/tcp     nginx01
24ce2db02e45        centos                "/bin/bash"              16 hours ago        Exited (0) 15 hours ago                               hopeful_faraday
42267d1ad80b        bf756fb1ae65          "/hello"                 16 hours ago        Exited (0) 16 hours ago                               ecstatic_sutherland
➜  ~ docker ps -aq
95039813da8d
1e46a426a5ba
14bc9334d1b2
f10d60f473f5
68729e9654d4
677cde5e4f1d
33eb3f70b4db
d506a017e951
24ce2db02e45
42267d1ad80b

退出容器

exit #容器直接退出
ctrl +P +Q #容器不停止退出

删除容器

docker rm 容器id   #删除指定的容器,不能删除正在运行的容器,如果要强制删除 rm -rf
docker rm -f $(docker ps -aq)  #删除指定的容器
docker ps -a -q|xargs docker rm  #删除所有的容器

启动和停止容器的操作

docker start 容器id	#启动容器
docker restart 容器id	#重启容器
docker stop 容器id	#停止当前正在运行的容器
docker kill 容器id	#强制停止当前容器

常用其他命令

后台启动命令

# 命令 docker run -d 镜像名
➜  ~ docker run -d centos
a8f922c255859622ac45ce3a535b7a0e8253329be4756ed6e32265d2dd2fac6c
➜  ~ docker ps           
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
# 问题docker ps. 发现centos 停止了
# 常见的坑,docker容器使用后台运行,就必须要有要一个前台进程,docker发现没有应用,就会自动停止
# nginx,容器启动后,发现自己没有提供服务,就会立刻停止,就是没有程序了

查看日志

docker logs --help
Options:
      --details        Show extra details provided to logs 
*  -f, --follow         Follow log output
      --since string   Show logs since timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
*      --tail string    Number of lines to show from the end of the logs (default "all")
*  -t, --timestamps     Show timestamps
      --until string   Show logs before a timestamp (e.g. 2013-01-02T13:23:37) or relative (e.g. 42m for 42 minutes)
➜  ~ docker run -d centos /bin/sh -c "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done" #模拟日志      
#显示日志
-tf		#显示日志信息(一直更新)
--tail number #需要显示日志条数
docker logs -t --tail n 容器id #查看n行日志
docker logs -ft 容器id #跟着日志

查看容器中进程信息 ps

# 命令 docker top 容器id

查看镜像的元数据

# 命令
docker inspect 容器id

#测试
➜  ~ docker inspect 55321bcae33d
[
    {
        "Id": "55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066",
        "Created": "2020-05-15T05:22:05.515909071Z",
        "Path": "/bin/sh",
        "Args": [
            "-c",
            "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done"
        ],
        "State": {
            "Status": "running",
            "Running": true,
            "Paused": false,
            "Restarting": false,
            "OOMKilled": false,
            "Dead": false,
            "Pid": 22973,
            "ExitCode": 0,
            "Error": "",
            "StartedAt": "2020-05-15T05:22:06.165904633Z",
            "FinishedAt": "0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"
        },
        "Image": "sha256:470671670cac686c7cf0081e0b37da2e9f4f768ddc5f6a26102ccd1c6954c1ee",
        "ResolvConfPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/resolv.conf",
        "HostnamePath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/hostname",
        "HostsPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/hosts",
        "LogPath": "/var/lib/docker/containers/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066/55321bcae33d15da8280bcac1d2bc1141d213bcc8f8e792edfd832ff61ae5066-json.log",
        "Name": "/bold_bell",
        "RestartCount": 0,
        "Driver": "overlay2",
        "Platform": "linux",
        "MountLabel": "",
        "ProcessLabel": "",
        "AppArmorProfile": "docker-default",
        "ExecIDs": null,
        "HostConfig": {
            "Binds": null,
            "ContainerIDFile": "",
            "LogConfig": {
                "Type": "json-file",
                "Config": {}
            },
            "NetworkMode": "default",
            "PortBindings": {},
            "RestartPolicy": {
                "Name": "no",
                "MaximumRetryCount": 0
            },
            "AutoRemove": false,
            "VolumeDriver": "",
            "VolumesFrom": null,
            "CapAdd": null,
            "CapDrop": null,
            "Capabilities": null,
            "Dns": [],
            "DnsOptions": [],
            "DnsSearch": [],
            "ExtraHosts": null,
            "GroupAdd": null,
            "IpcMode": "private",
            "Cgroup": "",
            "Links": null,
            "OomScoreAdj": 0,
            "PidMode": "",
            "Privileged": false,
            "PublishAllPorts": false,
            "ReadonlyRootfs": false,
            "SecurityOpt": null,
            "UTSMode": "",
            "UsernsMode": "",
            "ShmSize": 67108864,
            "Runtime": "runc",
            "ConsoleSize": [
                0,
                0
            ],
            "Isolation": "",
            "CpuShares": 0,
            "Memory": 0,
            "NanoCpus": 0,
            "CgroupParent": "",
            "BlkioWeight": 0,
            "BlkioWeightDevice": [],
            "BlkioDeviceReadBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteBps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceReadIOps": null,
            "BlkioDeviceWriteIOps": null,
            "CpuPeriod": 0,
            "CpuQuota": 0,
            "CpuRealtimePeriod": 0,
            "CpuRealtimeRuntime": 0,
            "CpusetCpus": "",
            "CpusetMems": "",
            "Devices": [],
            "DeviceCgroupRules": null,
            "DeviceRequests": null,
            "KernelMemory": 0,
            "KernelMemoryTCP": 0,
            "MemoryReservation": 0,
            "MemorySwap": 0,
            "MemorySwappiness": null,
            "OomKillDisable": false,
            "PidsLimit": null,
            "Ulimits": null,
            "CpuCount": 0,
            "CpuPercent": 0,
            "IOMaximumIOps": 0,
            "IOMaximumBandwidth": 0,
            "MaskedPaths": [
                "/proc/asound",
                "/proc/acpi",
                "/proc/kcore",
                "/proc/keys",
                "/proc/latency_stats",
                "/proc/timer_list",
                "/proc/timer_stats",
                "/proc/sched_debug",
                "/proc/scsi",
                "/sys/firmware"
            ],
            "ReadonlyPaths": [
                "/proc/bus",
                "/proc/fs",
                "/proc/irq",
                "/proc/sys",
                "/proc/sysrq-trigger"
            ]
        },
        "GraphDriver": {
            "Data": {
                "LowerDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a-init/diff:/var/lib/docker/overlay2/5afcd8220c51854a847a36f52775b4ed0acb16fe6cfaec3bd2e5df59863835ba/diff",
                "MergedDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/merged",
                "UpperDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/diff",
                "WorkDir": "/var/lib/docker/overlay2/1f347949ba49c4dbee70cea9ff3af39a14e602bc8fac8331c46347bf6708757a/work"
            },
            "Name": "overlay2"
        },
        "Mounts": [],
        "Config": {
            "Hostname": "55321bcae33d",
            "Domainname": "",
            "User": "",
            "AttachStdin": false,
            "AttachStdout": false,
            "AttachStderr": false,
            "Tty": false,
            "OpenStdin": false,
            "StdinOnce": false,
            "Env": [
                "PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
            ],
            "Cmd": [
                "/bin/sh",
                "-c",
                "while true;do echo 6666;sleep 1;done"
            ],
            "Image": "centos",
            "Volumes": null,
            "WorkingDir": "",
            "Entrypoint": null,
            "OnBuild": null,
            "Labels": {
                "org.label-schema.build-date": "20200114",
                "org.label-schema.license": "GPLv2",
                "org.label-schema.name": "CentOS Base Image",
                "org.label-schema.schema-version": "1.0",
                "org.label-schema.vendor": "CentOS",
                "org.opencontainers.image.created": "2020-01-14 00:00:00-08:00",
                "org.opencontainers.image.licenses": "GPL-2.0-only",
                "org.opencontainers.image.title": "CentOS Base Image",
                "org.opencontainers.image.vendor": "CentOS"
            }
        },
        "NetworkSettings": {
            "Bridge": "",
            "SandboxID": "63ed0c837f35c12453bae9661859f37a08541a0749afb86e881869bf6fd9031b",
            "HairpinMode": false,
            "LinkLocalIPv6Address": "",
            "LinkLocalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "Ports": {},
            "SandboxKey": "/var/run/docker/netns/63ed0c837f35",
            "SecondaryIPAddresses": null,
            "SecondaryIPv6Addresses": null,
            "EndpointID": "b129d9a5a2cbb92722a2101244bd81a9e3d8af034e83f338c13790a1a94552a1",
            "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
            "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
            "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
            "IPAddress": "172.17.0.4",
            "IPPrefixLen": 16,
            "IPv6Gateway": "",
            "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:04",
            "Networks": {
                "bridge": {
                    "IPAMConfig": null,
                    "Links": null,
                    "Aliases": null,
                    "NetworkID": "ad5ada6a106f5ba3dda9ce4bc1475a4bb593bf5f7fbead72196e66515e8ac36a",
                    "EndpointID": "b129d9a5a2cbb92722a2101244bd81a9e3d8af034e83f338c13790a1a94552a1",
                    "Gateway": "172.17.0.1",
                    "IPAddress": "172.17.0.4",
                    "IPPrefixLen": 16,
                    "IPv6Gateway": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6Address": "",
                    "GlobalIPv6PrefixLen": 0,
                    "MacAddress": "02:42:ac:11:00:04",
                    "DriverOpts": null
                }
            }
        }
    }
]
➜  ~

进入当前正在运行的容器

# 我们通常容器都是使用后台方式运行的,需要进入容器,修改一些配置

# 命令 
docker exec -it 容器id bashshell

#测试
➜  ~ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES
55321bcae33d        centos              "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   10 minutes ago      Up 10 minutes                           bold_bell
a7215824a4db        centos              "/bin/sh -c 'while t…"   13 minutes ago      Up 13 minutes                           zen_kepler
55a31b3f8613        centos              "/bin/bash"              15 minutes ago      Up 15 minutes                           lucid_clarke
➜  ~ docker exec -it 55321bcae33d /bin/bash
[root@55321bcae33d /]# 

# 方式二
docker attach 容器id
#测试
docker attach 55321bcae33d 
正在执行当前的代码...
区别
#docker exec #进入当前容器后开启一个新的终端,可以在里面操作。(常用)
#docker attach # 进入容器正在执行的终端

从容器内拷贝到主机上

docker cp 容器id:容器内路径   主机目的路径
#进入docker容器内部
➜  ~ docker exec -it  55321bcae33d /bin/bash 
[root@55321bcae33d /]# ls
bin  etc   lib    lost+found  mnt  proc  run   srv  tmp  var
dev  home  lib64  media       opt  root  sbin  sys  usr
#新建一个文件
[root@55321bcae33d /]# echo "hello" > java.java
[root@55321bcae33d /]# cat java.java 
hello
[root@55321bcae33d /]# exit
exit
➜  ~ docker cp 55321bcae33d:/java.java /    #拷贝
➜  ~ cd /              
➜  / ls  #可以看见java.java存在
bin   home            lib         mnt   run       sys  vmlinuz
boot  initrd.img      lib64       opt   sbin      tmp  vmlinuz.old
dev   initrd.img.old  lost+found  proc  srv       usr  wget-log
etc   java.java       media       root  swapfile  var  

学习方式:将我的所有笔记敲一遍,自己记录笔记!

小结:

  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  #当前shell下 attach连接指定运行的镜像
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile # 通过Dockerfile定制镜像
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes #提交当前容器为新的镜像
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem #拷贝文件
  create      Create a new container #创建一个新的容器
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem #查看docker容器的变化
  events      Get real time events from the server # 从服务获取容器实时时间
  exec        Run a command in a running container # 在运行中的容器上运行命令
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive #导出容器文件系统作为一个tar归档文件[对应import]
  history     Show the history of an image # 展示一个镜像形成历史
  images      List images #列出系统当前的镜像
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image #从tar包中导入内容创建一个文件系统镜像
  info        Display system-wide information # 显示全系统信息
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects #查看容器详细信息
  kill        Kill one or more running containers # kill指定docker容器
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN #从一个tar包或标准输入中加载一个镜像[对应save]
  login       Log in to a Docker registry #
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes