MySQL day02

1、关于查询结果集的去重?
mysql> select distinct job from emp; // distinct关键字去除重复记录。
+-----------+
| job |
+-----------+
| CLERK |
| SALESMAN |
| MANAGER |
| ANALYST |
| PRESIDENT |
+-----------+

mysql> select ename,distinct job from emp;
以上的sql语句是错误的。
记住:distinct只能出现在所有字段的最前面。

mysql> select distinct deptno,job from emp;
+--------+-----------+
| deptno | job |
+--------+-----------+
| 20 | CLERK |
| 30 | SALESMAN |
| 20 | MANAGER |
| 30 | MANAGER |
| 10 | MANAGER |
| 20 | ANALYST |
| 10 | PRESIDENT |
| 30 | CLERK |
| 10 | CLERK |
+--------+-----------+

案例:统计岗位的数量?
select count(distinct job) from emp;

+---------------------+
| count(distinct job) |
+---------------------+
| 5 |
+---------------------+

2、连接查询

2.1、什么是连接查询?
在实际开发中,大部分的情况下都不是从单表中查询数据,一般都是多张表联合查询取出最终的结果。
在实际开发中,一般一个业务都会对应多张表,比如:学生和班级,起码两张表。
stuno stuname classno classname
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 zs 1 北京大兴区亦庄经济技术开发区第二中学高三1班
2 ls 1 北京大兴区亦庄经济技术开发区第二中学高三1班
...
学生和班级信息存储到一张表中,结果就像上面一样,数据会存在大量的重复,导致数据的冗余。

2.2、连接查询的分类?
根据语法出现的年代来划分的话,包括:
SQL92(一些老的DBA可能还在使用这种语法。DBA:DataBase Administrator,数据库管理员)
SQL99(比较新的语法)

根据表的连接方式来划分,包括:
	内连接:
		等值连接
		非等值连接
		自连接
	外连接:
		左外连接(左连接)
		右外连接(右连接)
	全连接(这个不讲,很少用!)

2.3、在表的连接查询方面有一种现象被称为:笛卡尔积现象。(笛卡尔乘积现象)

案例:找出每一个员工的部门名称,要求显示员工名和部门名。
EMP表
+--------+--------+
| ename | deptno |
+--------+--------+
| SMITH | 20 |
| ALLEN | 30 |
| WARD | 30 |
| JONES | 20 |
| MARTIN | 30 |
| BLAKE | 30 |
| CLARK | 10 |
| SCOTT | 20 |
| KING | 10 |
| TURNER | 30 |
| ADAMS | 20 |
| JAMES | 30 |
| FORD | 20 |
| MILLER | 10 |
+--------+--------+
DEPT表
+--------+------------+----------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC |
+--------+------------+----------+
| 10 | ACCOUNTING | NEW YORK |
| 20 | RESEARCH | DALLAS |
| 30 | SALES | CHICAGO |
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
+--------+------------+----------+

select ename,dname from emp,dept;
+--------+------------+
| ename | dname |
+--------+------------+
| SMITH | ACCOUNTING |
| SMITH | RESEARCH |
| SMITH | SALES |
| SMITH | OPERATIONS |
| ALLEN | ACCOUNTING |
| ALLEN | RESEARCH |
| ALLEN | SALES |
| ALLEN | OPERATIONS |
............
56 rows in set (0.00 sec)

笛卡尔积现象:当两张表进行连接查询的时候,没有任何条件进行限制,最终的查询结果条数是两张表记录条数的乘积。

关于表的别名:
select e.ename,d.dname from emp e,dept d;
表的别名有什么好处?
第一:执行效率高。
第二:可读性好。

2.4、怎么避免笛卡尔积现象?当然是加条件进行过滤。
思考:避免了笛卡尔积现象,会减少记录的匹配次数吗?
不会,次数还是56次。只不过显示的是有效记录。

案例:找出每一个员工的部门名称,要求显示员工名和部门名。
select
e.ename,d.dname
from
emp e , dept d
where
e.deptno = d.deptno; //SQL92,以后不用。

+--------+------------+
| ename  | dname      |
+--------+------------+
| CLARK  | ACCOUNTING |
| KING   | ACCOUNTING |
| MILLER | ACCOUNTING |
| SMITH  | RESEARCH   |
| JONES  | RESEARCH   |
| SCOTT  | RESEARCH   |
| ADAMS  | RESEARCH   |
| FORD   | RESEARCH   |
| ALLEN  | SALES      |
| WARD   | SALES      |
| MARTIN | SALES      |
| BLAKE  | SALES      |
| TURNER | SALES      |
| JAMES  | SALES      |
+--------+------------+

2.5、内连接之等值连接:最大特点是:条件是等量关系。

案例:查询每个员工的部门名称,要求显示员工名和部门名。

SQL92:(太老,不用了)
select
e.ename,d.dname
from
emp e, dept d
where
e.deptno = d.deptno;

SQL99:(常用的)
select
e.ename,d.dname
from
emp e
join
dept d
on
e.deptno = d.deptno;

// inner可以省略的,带着inner目的是可读性好一些。
select 
	e.ename,d.dname
from
	emp e
inner join
	dept d
on
	e.deptno = d.deptno;

语法:
	...
		A
	join
		B
	on
		连接条件
	where
		...

SQL99语法结构更清晰一些:表的连接条件和后来的where条件分离了。

+--------+------------+
| ename  | dname      |
+--------+------------+
| CLARK  | ACCOUNTING |
| KING   | ACCOUNTING |
| MILLER | ACCOUNTING |
| SMITH  | RESEARCH   |
| JONES  | RESEARCH   |
| SCOTT  | RESEARCH   |
| ADAMS  | RESEARCH   |
| FORD   | RESEARCH   |
| ALLEN  | SALES      |
| WARD   | SALES      |
| MARTIN | SALES      |
| BLAKE  | SALES      |
| TURNER | SALES      |
| JAMES  | SALES      |
+--------+------------+

2.6、内连接之非等值连接:最大的特点是:连接条件中的关系是非等量关系。

案例:找出每个员工的工资等级,要求显示员工名、工资、工资等级。
mysql> select ename,sal from emp; e
+--------+---------+
| ename | sal |
+--------+---------+
| SMITH | 800.00 |
| ALLEN | 1600.00 |
| WARD | 1250.00 |
| JONES | 2975.00 |
| MARTIN | 1250.00 |
| BLAKE | 2850.00 |
| CLARK | 2450.00 |
| SCOTT | 3000.00 |
| KING | 5000.00 |
| TURNER | 1500.00 |
| ADAMS | 1100.00 |
| JAMES | 950.00 |
| FORD | 3000.00 |
| MILLER | 1300.00 |
+--------+---------+

mysql> select * from salgrade; s
+-------+-------+-------+
| GRADE | LOSAL | HISAL |
+-------+-------+-------+
| 1 | 700 | 1200 |
| 2 | 1201 | 1400 |
| 3 | 1401 | 2000 |
| 4 | 2001 | 3000 |
| 5 | 3001 | 9999 |
+-------+-------+-------+

select
e.ename,e.sal,s.grade
from
emp e
join
salgrade s
on
e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal;

// inner可以省略
select
e.ename,e.sal,s.grade
from
emp e
inner join
salgrade s
on
e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal;

+--------+---------+-------+
| ename | sal | grade |
+--------+---------+-------+
| SMITH | 800.00 | 1 |
| ALLEN | 1600.00 | 3 |
| WARD | 1250.00 | 2 |
| JONES | 2975.00 | 4 |
| MARTIN | 1250.00 | 2 |
| BLAKE | 2850.00 | 4 |
| CLARK | 2450.00 | 4 |
| SCOTT | 3000.00 | 4 |
| KING | 5000.00 | 5 |
| TURNER | 1500.00 | 3 |
| ADAMS | 1100.00 | 1 |
| JAMES | 950.00 | 1 |
| FORD | 3000.00 | 4 |
| MILLER | 1300.00 | 2 |
+--------+---------+-------+

2.7、自连接:最大的特点是:一张表看做两张表。自己连接自己。

案例:找出每个员工的上级领导,要求显示员工名和对应的领导名。
mysql> select empno,ename,mgr from emp;
emp a 员工表
+-------+--------+------+
| empno | ename | mgr |
+-------+--------+------+
| 7369 | SMITH | 7902 |
| 7499 | ALLEN | 7698 |
| 7521 | WARD | 7698 |
| 7566 | JONES | 7839 |
| 7654 | MARTIN | 7698 |
| 7698 | BLAKE | 7839 |
| 7782 | CLARK | 7839 |
| 7788 | SCOTT | 7566 |
| 7839 | KING | NULL |
| 7844 | TURNER | 7698 |
| 7876 | ADAMS | 7788 |
| 7900 | JAMES | 7698 |
| 7902 | FORD | 7566 |
| 7934 | MILLER | 7782 |
+-------+--------+------+
emp b 领导表
+-------+--------+
| empno | ename |
+-------+--------+
| 7566 | JONES |
| 7698 | BLAKE |
| 7782 | CLARK |
| 7788 | SCOTT |
| 7839 | KING |
| 7902 | FORD |
+-------+--------+

员工的领导编号 = 领导的员工编号

select
a.ename as '员工名',b.ename as '领导名'
from
emp a
inner join
emp b
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

+--------+--------+
| 员工名 | 领导名 |
+--------+--------+
| SMITH | FORD |
| ALLEN | BLAKE |
| WARD | BLAKE |
| JONES | KING |
| MARTIN | BLAKE |
| BLAKE | KING |
| CLARK | KING |
| SCOTT | JONES |
| TURNER | BLAKE |
| ADAMS | SCOTT |
| JAMES | BLAKE |
| FORD | JONES |
| MILLER | CLARK |
+--------+--------+

2.8、外连接?

什么是外连接,和内连接有什么区别?

内连接:
	假设A和B表进行连接,使用内连接的话,凡是A表和B表能够匹配上的记录查询出来,这就是内连接。
	AB两张表没有主副之分,两张表是平等的。

外连接:
	假设A和B表进行连接,使用外连接的话,AB两张表中有一张表是主表,一张表是副表,主要查询主表中
	的数据,捎带着查询副表,当副表中的数据没有和主表中的数据匹配上,副表自动模拟出NULL与之匹配。

外连接的分类?
	左外连接(左连接):表示左边的这张表是主表。
	右外连接(右连接):表示右边的这张表是主表。

	左连接有右连接的写法,右连接也会有对应的左连接的写法。

案例:找出每个员工的上级领导?(所有员工必须全部查询出来。)

emp a 员工表
+-------+--------+------+
| empno | ename | mgr |
+-------+--------+------+
| 7369 | SMITH | 7902 |
| 7499 | ALLEN | 7698 |
| 7521 | WARD | 7698 |
| 7566 | JONES | 7839 |
| 7654 | MARTIN | 7698 |
| 7698 | BLAKE | 7839 |
| 7782 | CLARK | 7839 |
| 7788 | SCOTT | 7566 |
| 7839 | KING | NULL |
| 7844 | TURNER | 7698 |
| 7876 | ADAMS | 7788 |
| 7900 | JAMES | 7698 |
| 7902 | FORD | 7566 |
| 7934 | MILLER | 7782 |
+-------+--------+------+
emp b 领导表
+-------+--------+
| empno | ename |
+-------+--------+
| 7566 | JONES |
| 7698 | BLAKE |
| 7782 | CLARK |
| 7788 | SCOTT |
| 7839 | KING |
| 7902 | FORD |
+-------+--------+

内连接:
select
a.ename '员工', b.ename '领导'
from
emp a
join
emp b
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

外连接:(左外连接/左连接)
select
a.ename '员工', b.ename '领导'
from
emp a
left join
emp b
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

// outer是可以省略的。
select
a.ename '员工', b.ename '领导'
from
emp a
left outer join
emp b
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

外连接:(右外连接/右连接)
select
a.ename '员工', b.ename '领导'
from
emp b
right join
emp a
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

// outer可以省略。
select
a.ename '员工', b.ename '领导'
from
emp b
right outer join
emp a
on
a.mgr = b.empno;

+--------+-------+
| 员工 | 领导 |
+--------+-------+
| SMITH | FORD |
| ALLEN | BLAKE |
| WARD | BLAKE |
| JONES | KING |
| MARTIN | BLAKE |
| BLAKE | KING |
| CLARK | KING |
| SCOTT | JONES |
| KING | NULL |
| TURNER | BLAKE |
| ADAMS | SCOTT |
| JAMES | BLAKE |
| FORD | JONES |
| MILLER | CLARK |
+--------+-------+

外连接最重要的特点是:主表的数据无条件的全部查询出来。

案例:找出哪个部门没有员工?
EMP表
+-------+--------+-----------+------+------------+---------+---------+--------+
| EMPNO | ENAME | JOB | MGR | HIREDATE | SAL | COMM | DEPTNO |
+-------+--------+-----------+------+------------+---------+---------+--------+
| 7369 | SMITH | CLERK | 7902 | 1980-12-17 | 800.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7499 | ALLEN | SALESMAN | 7698 | 1981-02-20 | 1600.00 | 300.00 | 30 |
| 7521 | WARD | SALESMAN | 7698 | 1981-02-22 | 1250.00 | 500.00 | 30 |
| 7566 | JONES | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-04-02 | 2975.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7654 | MARTIN | SALESMAN | 7698 | 1981-09-28 | 1250.00 | 1400.00 | 30 |
| 7698 | BLAKE | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-05-01 | 2850.00 | NULL | 30 |
| 7782 | CLARK | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-06-09 | 2450.00 | NULL | 10 |
| 7788 | SCOTT | ANALYST | 7566 | 1987-04-19 | 3000.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7839 | KING | PRESIDENT | NULL | 1981-11-17 | 5000.00 | NULL | 10 |
| 7844 | TURNER | SALESMAN | 7698 | 1981-09-08 | 1500.00 | 0.00 | 30 |
| 7876 | ADAMS | CLERK | 7788 | 1987-05-23 | 1100.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7900 | JAMES | CLERK | 7698 | 1981-12-03 | 950.00 | NULL | 30 |
| 7902 | FORD | ANALYST | 7566 | 1981-12-03 | 3000.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7934 | MILLER | CLERK | 7782 | 1982-01-23 | 1300.00 | NULL | 10 |
+-------+--------+-----------+------+------------+---------+---------+--------+
DEPT
+--------+------------+----------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC |
+--------+------------+----------+
| 10 | ACCOUNTING | NEW YORK |
| 20 | RESEARCH | DALLAS |
| 30 | SALES | CHICAGO |
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
+--------+------------+----------+

select
d.*
from
emp e
right join
dept d
on
e.deptno = d.deptno
where
e.empno is null;

+--------+------------+--------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC |
+--------+------------+--------+
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
+--------+------------+--------+

2.9、三张表怎么连接查询?
案例:找出每一个员工的部门名称以及工资等级。
EMP e
+-------+--------+---------+--------+
| empno | ename | sal | deptno |
+-------+--------+---------+--------+
| 7369 | SMITH | 800.00 | 20 |
| 7499 | ALLEN | 1600.00 | 30 |
| 7521 | WARD | 1250.00 | 30 |
| 7566 | JONES | 2975.00 | 20 |
| 7654 | MARTIN | 1250.00 | 30 |
| 7698 | BLAKE | 2850.00 | 30 |
| 7782 | CLARK | 2450.00 | 10 |
| 7788 | SCOTT | 3000.00 | 20 |
| 7839 | KING | 5000.00 | 10 |
| 7844 | TURNER | 1500.00 | 30 |
| 7876 | ADAMS | 1100.00 | 20 |
| 7900 | JAMES | 950.00 | 30 |
| 7902 | FORD | 3000.00 | 20 |
| 7934 | MILLER | 1300.00 | 10 |
+-------+--------+---------+--------+
DEPT d
+--------+------------+----------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC |
+--------+------------+----------+
| 10 | ACCOUNTING | NEW YORK |
| 20 | RESEARCH | DALLAS |
| 30 | SALES | CHICAGO |
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
+--------+------------+----------+
SALGRADE s
+-------+-------+-------+
| GRADE | LOSAL | HISAL |
+-------+-------+-------+
| 1 | 700 | 1200 |
| 2 | 1201 | 1400 |
| 3 | 1401 | 2000 |
| 4 | 2001 | 3000 |
| 5 | 3001 | 9999 |
+-------+-------+-------+

注意,解释一下:
....
A
join
B
join
C
on
...

表示:A表和B表先进行表连接,连接之后A表继续和C表进行连接。

select 
	e.ename,d.dname,s.grade
from
	emp e
join
	dept d
on
	e.deptno = d.deptno
join
	salgrade s
on
	e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal;

+--------+------------+-------+
| ename  | dname      | grade |
+--------+------------+-------+
| SMITH  | RESEARCH   |     1 |
| ALLEN  | SALES      |     3 |
| WARD   | SALES      |     2 |
| JONES  | RESEARCH   |     4 |
| MARTIN | SALES      |     2 |
| BLAKE  | SALES      |     4 |
| CLARK  | ACCOUNTING |     4 |
| SCOTT  | RESEARCH   |     4 |
| KING   | ACCOUNTING |     5 |
| TURNER | SALES      |     3 |
| ADAMS  | RESEARCH   |     1 |
| JAMES  | SALES      |     1 |
| FORD   | RESEARCH   |     4 |
| MILLER | ACCOUNTING |     2 |
+--------+------------+-------+

案例:找出每一个员工的部门名称、工资等级、以及上级领导。
select
e.ename '员工',d.dname,s.grade,e1.ename '领导'
from
emp e
join
dept d
on
e.deptno = d.deptno
join
salgrade s
on
e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal
left join
emp e1
on
e.mgr = e1.empno;

+--------+------------+-------+-------+
| 员工      | dname      | grade | 领导    |
+--------+------------+-------+-------+
| SMITH  | RESEARCH   |     1 | FORD  |
| ALLEN  | SALES      |     3 | BLAKE |
| WARD   | SALES      |     2 | BLAKE |
| JONES  | RESEARCH   |     4 | KING  |
| MARTIN | SALES      |     2 | BLAKE |
| BLAKE  | SALES      |     4 | KING  |
| CLARK  | ACCOUNTING |     4 | KING  |
| SCOTT  | RESEARCH   |     4 | JONES |
| KING   | ACCOUNTING |     5 | NULL  |
| TURNER | SALES      |     3 | BLAKE |
| ADAMS  | RESEARCH   |     1 | SCOTT |
| JAMES  | SALES      |     1 | BLAKE |
| FORD   | RESEARCH   |     4 | JONES |
| MILLER | ACCOUNTING |     2 | CLARK |
+--------+------------+-------+-------+

3、子查询

3.1、什么是子查询?子查询都可以出现在哪里?
select语句当中嵌套select语句,被嵌套的select语句是子查询。
子查询可以出现在哪里?
select
..(select).
from
..(select).
where
..(select).

3.2、where子句中使用子查询

案例:找出高于平均薪资的员工信息。
select * from emp where sal > avg(sal); //错误的写法,where后面不能直接使用分组函数。

第一步:找出平均薪资
select avg(sal) from emp;
+-------------+
| avg(sal) |
+-------------+
| 2073.214286 |
+-------------+
第二步:where过滤
select * from emp where sal > 2073.214286;
+-------+-------+-----------+------+------------+---------+------+--------+
| EMPNO | ENAME | JOB | MGR | HIREDATE | SAL | COMM | DEPTNO |
+-------+-------+-----------+------+------------+---------+------+--------+
| 7566 | JONES | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-04-02 | 2975.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7698 | BLAKE | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-05-01 | 2850.00 | NULL | 30 |
| 7782 | CLARK | MANAGER | 7839 | 1981-06-09 | 2450.00 | NULL | 10 |
| 7788 | SCOTT | ANALYST | 7566 | 1987-04-19 | 3000.00 | NULL | 20 |
| 7839 | KING | PRESIDENT | NULL | 1981-11-17 | 5000.00 | NULL | 10 |
| 7902 | FORD | ANALYST | 7566 | 1981-12-03 | 3000.00 | NULL | 20 |
+-------+-------+-----------+------+------------+---------+------+--------+
第一步和第二步合并:
select * from emp where sal > (select avg(sal) from emp);

3.3、from后面嵌套子查询

案例:找出每个部门平均薪水的等级。
第一步:找出每个部门平均薪水(按照部门编号分组,求sal的平均值)
select deptno,avg(sal) as avgsal from emp group by deptno;
+--------+-------------+
| deptno | avgsal |
+--------+-------------+
| 10 | 2916.666667 |
| 20 | 2175.000000 |
| 30 | 1566.666667 |
+--------+-------------+
第二步:将以上的查询结果当做临时表t,让t表和salgrade s表连接,条件是:t.avgsal between s.losal and s.hisal
select
t.*,s.grade
from
(select deptno,avg(sal) as avgsal from emp group by deptno) t
join
salgrade s
on
t.avgsal between s.losal and s.hisal;

+--------+-------------+-------+
| deptno | avgsal | grade |
+--------+-------------+-------+
| 30 | 1566.666667 | 3 |
| 10 | 2916.666667 | 4 |
| 20 | 2175.000000 | 4 |
+--------+-------------+-------+

案例:找出每个部门平均的薪水等级。
第一步:找出每个员工的薪水等级。
select e.ename,e.sal,e.deptno,s.grade from emp e join salgrade s on e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal;
+--------+---------+--------+-------+
| ename | sal | deptno | grade |
+--------+---------+--------+-------+
| SMITH | 800.00 | 20 | 1 |
| ALLEN | 1600.00 | 30 | 3 |
| WARD | 1250.00 | 30 | 2 |
| JONES | 2975.00 | 20 | 4 |
| MARTIN | 1250.00 | 30 | 2 |
| BLAKE | 2850.00 | 30 | 4 |
| CLARK | 2450.00 | 10 | 4 |
| SCOTT | 3000.00 | 20 | 4 |
| KING | 5000.00 | 10 | 5 |
| TURNER | 1500.00 | 30 | 3 |
| ADAMS | 1100.00 | 20 | 1 |
| JAMES | 950.00 | 30 | 1 |
| FORD | 3000.00 | 20 | 4 |
| MILLER | 1300.00 | 10 | 2 |
+--------+---------+--------+-------+
第二步:基于以上结果,继续按照deptno分组,求grade平均值。
select
e.deptno,avg(s.grade)
from
emp e
join
salgrade s
on
e.sal between s.losal and s.hisal
group by
e.deptno;

+--------+--------------+
| deptno | avg(s.grade) |
+--------+--------------+
| 10 | 3.6667 |
| 20 | 2.8000 |
| 30 | 2.5000 |
+--------+--------------+

3.4、在select后面嵌套子查询。
案例:找出每个员工所在的部门名称,要求显示员工名和部门名。

select
e.ename,d.dname
from
emp e
join
dept d
on
e.deptno = d.deptno;

select
e.ename,(select d.dname from dept d where e.deptno = d.deptno) as dname
from
emp e;

+--------+------------+
| ename | dname |
+--------+------------+
| SMITH | RESEARCH |
| ALLEN | SALES |
| WARD | SALES |
| JONES | RESEARCH |
| MARTIN | SALES |
| BLAKE | SALES |
| CLARK | ACCOUNTING |
| SCOTT | RESEARCH |
| KING | ACCOUNTING |
| TURNER | SALES |
| ADAMS | RESEARCH |
| JAMES | SALES |
| FORD | RESEARCH |
| MILLER | ACCOUNTING |
+--------+------------+

4、union (可以将查询结果集相加)

案例:找出工作岗位是SALESMAN和MANAGER的员工?
第一种:select ename,job from emp where job = 'MANAGER' or job = 'SALESMAN';
第二种:select ename,job from emp where job in('MANAGER','SALESMAN');
+--------+----------+
| ename | job |
+--------+----------+
| ALLEN | SALESMAN |
| WARD | SALESMAN |
| JONES | MANAGER |
| MARTIN | SALESMAN |
| BLAKE | MANAGER |
| CLARK | MANAGER |
| TURNER | SALESMAN |
+--------+----------+
第三种:union
select ename,job from emp where job = 'MANAGER'
union
select ename,job from emp where job = 'SALESMAN';
+--------+----------+
| ename | job |
+--------+----------+
| JONES | MANAGER |
| BLAKE | MANAGER |
| CLARK | MANAGER |
| ALLEN | SALESMAN |
| WARD | SALESMAN |
| MARTIN | SALESMAN |
| TURNER | SALESMAN |
+--------+----------+

两张不相干的表中的数据拼接在一起显示?
select ename from emp
union
select dname from dept;

+------------+
| ename |
+------------+
| SMITH |
| ALLEN |
| WARD |
| JONES |
| MARTIN |
| BLAKE |
| CLARK |
| SCOTT |
| KING |
| TURNER |
| ADAMS |
| JAMES |
| FORD |
| MILLER |
| ACCOUNTING |
| RESEARCH |
| SALES |
| OPERATIONS |
+------------+

mysql> select ename,sal from emp
-> union
-> select dname from dept;
ERROR 1222 (21000): The used SELECT statements have a different number of columns

5、limit (重点中的重点,以后分页查询全靠它了。)

5.1、limit是mysql特有的,其他数据库中没有,不通用。(Oracle中有一个相同的机制,叫做rownum)

5.2、limit取结果集中的部分数据,这时它的作用。

5.3、语法机制:
limit startIndex, length
startIndex表示起始位置,从0开始,0表示第一条数据。
length表示取几个

案例:取出工资前5名的员工(思路:降序取前5个)
	select ename,sal from emp order by sal desc;
	取前5个:
		select ename,sal from emp order by sal desc limit 0, 5;
		select ename,sal from emp order by sal desc limit 5;

5.4、limit是sql语句最后执行的一个环节:
select 5
...
from 1
...
where 2
...
group by 3
...
having 4
...
order by 6
...
limit 7
...;

5.5、案例:找出工资排名在第4到第9名的员工?
select ename,sal from emp order by sal desc limit 3,6;
+--------+---------+
| ename | sal |
+--------+---------+
| JONES | 2975.00 |
| BLAKE | 2850.00 |
| CLARK | 2450.00 |
| ALLEN | 1600.00 |
| TURNER | 1500.00 |
| MILLER | 1300.00 |
+--------+---------+

5.6、通用的标准分页sql?

每页显示3条记录:
第1页:0, 3
第2页:3, 3
第3页:6, 3
第4页:9, 3
第5页:12, 3

每页显示pageSize条记录:
第pageNo页:(pageNo - 1) * pageSize, pageSize

pageSize是什么?是每页显示多少条记录
pageNo是什么?显示第几页

java代码{
int pageNo = 2; // 页码是2
int pageSize = 10; // 每页显示10条

limit (pageNo - 1) * pageSize, pageSize

}

6、创建表:

建表语句的语法格式:
	create table 表名(
		字段名1 数据类型,
		字段名2 数据类型,
		字段名3 数据类型,
		....
	);

关于MySQL当中字段的数据类型?以下只说常见的
	int		整数型(java中的int)
	bigint	长整型(java中的long)
	float		浮点型(java中的float double)
	char		定长字符串(String)
	varchar	可变长字符串(StringBuffer/StringBuilder)
	date		日期类型 (对应Java中的java.sql.Date类型)
	BLOB		二进制大对象(存储图片、视频等流媒体信息) Binary Large OBject (对应java中的Object)
	CLOB		字符大对象(存储较大文本,比如,可以存储4G的字符串。) Character Large OBject(对应java中的Object)
	......

char和varchar怎么选择?
	在实际的开发中,当某个字段中的数据长度不发生改变的时候,是定长的,例如:性别、生日等都是采用char。
	当一个字段的数据长度不确定,例如:简介、姓名等都是采用varchar。

BLOB和CLOB类型的使用?
	电影表: t_movie
	id(int)	name(varchar)		playtime(date/char)		haibao(BLOB)		history(CLOB)
	----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	1			蜘蛛侠	
	2
	3

表名在数据库当中一般建议以:t_或者tbl_开始。

创建学生表:
	学生信息包括:
		学号、姓名、性别、班级编号、生日
		学号:bigint
		姓名:varchar
		性别:char
		班级编号:int
		生日:char
	
	create table t_student(
		no bigint,
		name varchar(255),
		sex char(1),
		classno varchar(255),
		birth char(10)
	);

7、insert语句插入数据
语法格式:
insert into 表名(字段名1,字段名2,字段名3,....) values(值1,值2,值3,....)
要求:字段的数量和值的数量相同,并且数据类型要对应相同。

insert into t_student(no,name,sex,classno,birth) values(1,'zhangsan','1','gaosan1ban');
ERROR 1136 (21S01): Column count doesn't match value count at row 1

insert into t_student(no,name,sex,classno,birth) values(1,'zhangsan','1','gaosan1ban', '1950-10-12');

mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
|    1 | zhangsan | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

insert into t_student(name,sex,classno,birth,no) values('lisi','1','gaosan1ban', '1950-10-12',2);

mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
|    1 | zhangsan | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
|    2 | lisi     | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

insert into t_student(name) values('wangwu'); // 除name字段之外,剩下的所有字段自动插入NULL。
mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
|    1 | zhangsan | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
|    2 | lisi     | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
| NULL | wangwu   | NULL | NULL       | NULL       |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

insert into t_student(no) values(3); 
mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
|    1 | zhangsan | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
|    2 | lisi     | 1    | gaosan1ban | 1950-10-12 |
| NULL | wangwu   | NULL | NULL       | NULL       |
|    3 | NULL     | NULL | NULL       | NULL       |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

drop table if exists t_student; // 当这个表存在的话删除。
create table t_student(
	no bigint,
	name varchar(255),
	sex char(1) default 1,
	classno varchar(255),
	birth char(10)
);

insert into t_student(name) values('zhangsan');
mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+---------+-------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno | birth |
+------+----------+------+---------+-------+
| NULL | zhangsan | 1    | NULL    | NULL  |
+------+----------+------+---------+-------+

需要注意的地方:
	当一条insert语句执行成功之后,表格当中必然会多一行记录。
	即使多的这一行记录当中某些字段是NULL,后期也没有办法在执行
	insert语句插入数据了,只能使用update进行更新。

// 字段可以省略不写,但是后面的value对数量和顺序都有要求。
insert into t_student values(1,'jack','0','gaosan2ban','1986-10-23');
mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| NULL | zhangsan | 1    | NULL       | NULL       |
|    1 | jack     | 0    | gaosan2ban | 1986-10-23 |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

insert into t_student values(1,'jack','0','gaosan2ban');
ERROR 1136 (21S01): Column count doesn't match value count at row 1

// 一次插入多行数据
insert into t_student
	(no,name,sex,classno,birth) 
values
	(3,'rose','1','gaosi2ban','1952-12-14'),(4,'laotie','1','gaosi2ban','1955-12-14');

mysql> select * from t_student;
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| no   | name     | sex  | classno    | birth      |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+
| NULL | zhangsan | 1    | NULL       | NULL       |
|    1 | jack     | 0    | gaosan2ban | 1986-10-23 |
|    3 | rose     | 1    | gaosi2ban  | 1952-12-14 |
|    4 | laotie   | 1    | gaosi2ban  | 1955-12-14 |
+------+----------+------+------------+------------+

8、表的复制
语法:
create table 表名 as select语句;
将查询结果当做表创建出来。

9、将查询结果插入到一张表中?
mysql> insert into dept1 select * from dept;
mysql> select * from dept1;
+--------+------------+----------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC |
+--------+------------+----------+
| 10 | ACCOUNTING | NEW YORK |
| 20 | RESEARCH | DALLAS |
| 30 | SALES | CHICAGO |
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
| 10 | ACCOUNTING | NEW YORK |
| 20 | RESEARCH | DALLAS |
| 30 | SALES | CHICAGO |
| 40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON |
+--------+------------+----------+

10、修改数据:update

语法格式:
	update 表名 set 字段名1=值1,字段名2=值2... where 条件;

注意:没有条件整张表数据全部更新。

案例:将部门10的LOC修改为SHANGHAI,将部门名称修改为RENSHIBU
update dept1 set loc = 'SHANGHAI', dname = 'RENSHIBU' where deptno = 10;
mysql> select * from dept1;
+--------+------------+----------+
| DEPTNO | DNAME      | LOC      |
+--------+------------+----------+
|     10 | RENSHIBU   | SHANGHAI |
|     20 | RESEARCH   | DALLAS   |
|     30 | SALES      | CHICAGO  |
|     40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON   |
|     10 | RENSHIBU   | SHANGHAI |
|     20 | RESEARCH   | DALLAS   |
|     30 | SALES      | CHICAGO  |
|     40 | OPERATIONS | BOSTON   |
+--------+------------+----------+

更新所有记录
	update dept1 set loc = 'x', dname = 'y';
	mysql> select * from dept1;
	+--------+-------+------+
	| DEPTNO | DNAME | LOC  |
	+--------+-------+------+
	|     10 | y     | x    |
	|     20 | y     | x    |
	|     30 | y     | x    |
	|     40 | y     | x    |
	|     10 | y     | x    |
	|     20 | y     | x    |
	|     30 | y     | x    |
	|     40 | y     | x    |
	+--------+-------+------+

11、删除数据?
语法格式:
delete from 表名 where 条件;

注意:没有条件全部删除。

删除10部门数据?
	delete from dept1 where deptno = 10;

删除所有记录?
	delete from dept1;

怎么删除大表中的数据?(重点)
	truncate table 表名; // 表被截断,不可回滚。永久丢失。
删除表?
	drop table 表名; // 这个通用。
	drop table if exists 表名; // oracle不支持这种写法。

12、对于表结构的修改,这里不讲了,大家使用工具完成即可,因为在实际开发中表一旦
设计好之后,对表结构的修改是很少的,修改表结构就是对之前的设计进行了否定,即使
需要修改表结构,我们也可以直接使用工具操作。修改表结构的语句不会出现在Java代码当中。
出现在java代码当中的sql包括:insert delete update select(这些都是表中的数据操作。)

增删改查有一个术语:CRUD操作
Create(增) Retrieve(检索) Update(修改) Delete(删除)

13、约束(Constraint)

13.1、什么是约束?常见的约束有哪些呢?
在创建表的时候,可以给表的字段添加相应的约束,添加约束的目的是为了保证表中数据的
合法性、有效性、完整性。
常见的约束有哪些呢?
非空约束(not null):约束的字段不能为NULL
唯一约束(unique):约束的字段不能重复
主键约束(primary key):约束的字段既不能为NULL,也不能重复(简称PK)
外键约束(foreign key):...(简称FK)
检查约束(check):注意Oracle数据库有check约束,但是mysql没有,目前mysql不支持该约束。

13.2、非空约束 not null
drop table if exists t_user;
create table t_user(
id int,
username varchar(255) not null,
password varchar(255)
);
insert into t_user(id,password) values(1,'123');
ERROR 1364 (HY000): Field 'username' doesn't have a default value

insert into t_user(id,username,password) values(1,'lisi','123');